PHYS 4910 Spectroscopy
Spring 2018


Approximate Schedule

Mondays Wednesdays Fridays Labs
January 26
Introduction
Definition of terms, units
January/February 29
Refractive Index and dispersion
air wavelengths vs vacuum wavelengths
31
Lab reports
Propagation of Errors
2
Diffraction gratings
Ewart Optics lecture 6
5
Multibeam interference
Ewart Optics lecture 6
7
Prisms
9
Czerny Turner Monochromator
12
Detectors
14
Gratings
16
Classical Theory of Atoms
Bohr atom
Hydrogen spectrum
19
Quantum Theory of hydrogen atoms
Quantum numbers
Degeneracy
21
 
23
Perturbation theory
Czerny Turner Monochromator
February/March 26
Perturbations in atoms
Relativistic effects in hydrogen atoms
28
Central Field Approximation
Spectra of the alkali atoms
Quantum defect
Ewart Atomic Physics chapter 3
2
 
Spectrum of H, He and Ne
5
Helium atom
Spin
Symmetric and Antisymmmetric wavefunctions
7
 
9
Selection rules
Ewart Atomic Physics chapter 8
Parity
Detector characteristics
12 14
Spin orbit coupling
LS coupling
Multielectron atoms
Non equivalent electrons
Fine structure
Ewart Atomic Physics chapters 4 and 5
16 Spectrum of H, He and Ne
19 21
LS coupling
Multielectron atoms
Equivalent electrons
Ewart Atomic Physics chapters 4 and 5
23 Na D lines
26
Polarized Light
Ewart Optics lecture 10
Zeeman Effect
Ewart Atomic Physics chapter 8
28 Resolving Power
Spring Break
April 9 11 13
Hyperfine structure
Ewart Atomic Physics chapter 6
16
Line broadening
Ewart Atomic Physics section 2.1
18
Doppler broadening
20
Pressure and natural broadening
Projects
23 25 27 Projects
April/May 30 2 4 Projects
7 9 11 Projects
14 16  Project presentations

Projects

  1. D lines of the alkali atoms - Measure the progression in the spacing of the np-n's transitions of the alkali atoms (Li -> Na -> Rb -> Cs). The energy change between the np 2P levels reflects the increasing importance of spin-orbit coupling as Z increases.
  2. Isotope Effect in Hydrogen - The difference in wavelength for the four visible Balmer lines from hydrogen and deuterium. Measures the dependence of the spin orbit coupling on the principal quantum number, n
  3. Fabry Perot Etalon - An interference device with a very high resolving power. Obtain the spectrum from a sodium lamp, a mercury lamp, and a cadmium lamp.
  4. Spectrum of molecular nitrogen - Vibrational levels of a diatomic molecule, with influence from rotational levels
  5. Gamma ray spectroscopy - Applying the principles of spectroscopy in a region of the electromagnetic spectrum well removed from the visible. Focus is on the different instrumentation, and its ability to resolve spectra
  6. Doppler free spectroscopy (report only) - Even with high resolution equipment fine details can be rendered invisible by fundamental processes which broaden spectral lines, that is they are not truly a single wavelength. Doppler free spectroscopy is one means for overcoming the effects of the Doppler Effect in gases.
  7. Spectra from ac lamps - Our instrumentation works well with light sources which have a constant output. When the output is fluctuating there are problems with the digital sampling. One possible way of addressing the problem is using a lock in amplifier
  8. Fourier transform spectroscopy (report only) - Based on the Michelson interferometer FTS can produce the spectrum of a source by measuring the interference pattern, and then using a computer algorithm to transform the interference pattern back to the spectrum.
  9. Diode Laser bandwidth
  10. Lexan and other plastic absorption